As part of a living organism, we are made up of cells and essential nutrients such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. But most importantly, almost every cell in a multicellular organism possesses a complete set of DNA.
RNA and DNA coordinated run the entire process of protein synthesis. In this article, we will examine the overall concept of DNA and RNA, which function according to the way amino acids organize protein synthesis.
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (abbreviated to DNA) is a complex molecule that contains all the information important to build and repair an organism. Almost all living things have DNA inside their cells. In fact, as can be seen above, almost every cell in a multicellular organism has a complete set of DNA needed for that organism.
DNA not only regulates the structure and function of living things, but also serves as the basic building block of heredity in all types of organisms. Simply put, with the reproduction of an organism, part of the DNA structure is passed on to the next generation. This flow of all or part of an organism’s DNA ensures continuity of origin from one generation to another.
What is RNA?
Ribonucleic acid, abbreviated as RNA, is a complex high molecular weight compound. It works in cellular protein synthesis by replacing DNA as a carrier of the genetic code.
RNA contains ribose nucleotides attached by phosphodiester bonds that can form strands of varying lengths. The nitrogenous bases in RNA are four important chemicals: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil, which help to displace Thymine in DNA.
The ribose sugar in RNA is a cyclic structure with one oxygen atom attached to each carbon atom. The hydrolysis of RNA is due to the chemically reactive hydroxyl group attached to the carbon group of the ribose sugar. Because DNA lacks reactive hydroxyl groups, DNA is the preferred genetic information keeper in most organisms.
How are DNA and RNA important to humans?
DNA and RNA are the two main types of nucleic acids. DNA is the genetic asset found in all living organisms. DNA is located in the nucleus of eukaryotes and chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Everything related to the entire genetic content of a cell is the genome, and DNA forms a mixture with histone proteins to form chromatin, the substance of eukaryotic chromosomes in eukaryotes. A single chromosome is made up of thousands of genes. This gene maintains protein synthesis information. What turns this gene on and off is because it controls the DNA.
Now another nucleic acid, RNA, is an important part of protein synthesis. DNA molecules do not leave the nucleus of a eukaryote, but instead use a medium to communicate with the rest of the cell. These mediators are messenger RNA, rRNA, tRNA and microRNA involved in protein synthesis and maintenance.
What is the concept of RNA and DNA function?
As we have seen, both DNA and RNA are made of nucleotides containing a five carbon sugar backbone, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base. In addition, DNA provides the cell’s active code, while RNA converts that code into proteins. This is protein synthesis. Let’s understand it in a better way. This process involves two steps: transcription and translation.
Transcription takes a carbon copy of the DNA section. These copies are known as messenger RNA (mRNA) and must travel further outside the cell nucleus before the next step in protein synthesis can begin.
Translation takes place inside the organelle ribosome. Messenger RNA associates with ribosomes under the influence of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and enzymes. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a molecule that carries a single amino acid and a coded sequence that is central to the process.
This coded sequence is the three-letter code for the mRNA, which helps ensure the correct placement of amino acids. All these sequences are called codons. Protein synthesis is linked in a specific order, leading to linked chains of amino acids. These chains are called polypeptides and are built according to a DNA-based code. The order in which amino acids are linked is the information recorded in DNA.
RNA and DNA are both built on a nucleotide base and both contain four nitrogenous bases in pairs. Each DNA strand is made up of a chain of connecting nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group. There are a total of four different nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).
A DNA strand is almost always bound to another DNA strand in a double helix. The two strands of DNA are bound together by nitrogen bases to bind adenine and thymine together and guanine and cytosine.
Because three of the four nitrogenous bases are identical, the RNA molecule has a base called uracil (U) instead of a thymine base. Uracil replaces the position of thymine and forms a complementary pair with adenine during transcription.
Transcription is the process of making an RNA strand from a DNA strand. DNA is again used as a template during transcription. Information stored in DNA molecules is rewritten or ‘transcribed’ into new RNA molecules.
Genes contain all the information necessary for protein synthesis. The production of this protein is carried out through two processes: transcription and translation. In transcription and translation, information is taken from DNA and used to create proteins. Transcription uses DNA to make RNA.
RNA molecules are the link between DNA and protein production. This protein synthesis is the process by which polypeptide chains are formed from single amino acids in the form of a code inside the cell. Finally, protein synthesis occurs within the cell’s nucleus and ribosomes and is regulated by DNA and RNA.